Sunday, 11 November 2018

Routing Protocol Authentication (RIP, and OSPF)




Routing Protocol Authentication (OSPF, and RIPv2)

A router authenticates the source of each routing update packet that it receives. Many routing protocols support authentication like OSPF, EIGRP, ISIS, BGP, and RIPv2.
Cisco routers support of different approaches to authentication route advertisements received from a neighboring router:
  1. Plan text authentication
  2. Hashing authentication (using MD5)

Simple password authentication:

Router sends packets and key (if a routing protocol doesn’t support multiple keys, the key number associated with a routing update is 0). Neighboring router check whether key matches its key. The outing update is rejected if the keys do not match. The only routing protocols the plan text authentication are RIPv2, OSPF, and ISIS.

MD5 authentication

Configure a key (password) and key ID, router generate a message digest or hash of the key, key ID and message. Message digest is send with packet key is not sent. The neighboring router receives the update and run a hashing algorithm on the routing update with local key, the results in a hash digest. If hash digit matches, the router accept the packet, if it not the update is rejected. This process is more secure than a plain text authentication. IS-IS, OSPF, RIPv2 and EIGRP use MD5.

Let’s see the configuration:

Topology:



Goal:

  • configure the topology and interface as per the diagram
  • configure RIPv2 on both the routers and advertise the interface as per the topology
  • make sure both the routers exchange the routes only after successful authentication.



R1#show ip interface brief

Interface              IP-Address      OK? Method Status                Protocol

FastEthernet0/0        10.1.1.1        YES manual up                    up

Serial3/0                    1.1.1.1         YES manual up                    up


R2#show ip interface brief

Interface              IP-Address      OK? Method Status                Protocol

FastEthernet0/0        20.1.1.1        YES manual up                    up

Serial3/0                    1.1.1.2         YES manual up                    up





 R1(config)#router rip
R1(config-router)#version 2
R1(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0
R1(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
R1(config-router)#end

R2(config)#router rip
R2(config-router)#version 2
R2(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0
R2(config-router)#network 20.0.0.0
R2(config-router)#no auto-summary
R2(config-router)#end




 R1#show ip route rip

Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is not set


R     20.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 1.1.1.2, 00:00:07, Serial3/0

R2#show ip route rip
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is not set

R     10.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 1.1.1.1, 00:00:21, Serial3/0



  
configuring authentication:

R1(config)#key chain anyname1

R1(config)#key chain anyname1
R1(config-keychain)#key 1
R1(config-keychain-key)#key-string internetworks
R1(config)#interface serial 3/0
R1(config-if)#ip rip authentication md
R1(config-if)#ip rip authentication key-chain anyname1

R2(config)#key chain anyname2
R2(config-keychain)#key 1
R2(config-keychain-key)#key-string internetworks
R2(config-keychain-key)#end
R2(config)#interface serial 3/0
R2(config-if)#ip rip authentication mode md5
R2(config-if)#ip rip authentication key-chain anyname2



R1#show ip route

Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is not set

      1.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C        1.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial3/0
L        1.1.1.1/32 is directly connected, Serial3/0
      10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C        10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
L        10.1.1.1/32 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
R     20.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 1.1.1.2, 00:00:26, Serial3/0



R2#clear ip route *

R2#sh ip route
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is not set

      1.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C        1.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial3/0
L        1.1.1.2/32 is directly connected, Serial3/0
R     10.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 1.1.1.1, 00:00:09, Serial3/0
      20.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C        20.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
L        20.1.1.1/32 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0



R1#show key chain

Key-chain anyname1:
    key 1 -- text "internetworks"
        accept lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now]
        send lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now]

R2#show key chain
Key-chain anyname2:
    key 1 -- text "internetworks"
        accept lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now]
        send lifetime (always valid) - (always valid) [valid now]

OSPF Authentication

there are two types of  authentication in OSPf

1.Simple
2.Cryptographic (MD5/ SHA)



All OSPF packet will be authenticated when you enable any formation of authentication in OSPF.

Before we start  BGP configuration check out some important  of BGP CCIE exam topics.


Here are the lists of all OSPF labs and theories CCNA to CCIE.









let see the configuration:-


Topology:-


GOAL:

  • Configure the topology as per our diagram
  • configure OSPF in area 0 and advertise all the interfaces
  • configure router 1 and router 2 to exchange routes after establishing successful authentication by using clear text  



R1#show ip interface brief
Interface              IP-Address      OK? Method Status                Protocol
FastEthernet0/0        10.1.1.1        YES manual up                    up
Serial3/0                   1.1.1.1         YES manual up                    down
Loopback0              11.0.0.1        YES manual up                    up
Loopback1              11.0.1.1        YES manual up                    up
Loopback2              11.0.2.1        YES manual up                    up
Loopback3              11.0.3.1        YES manual up                    up

R2#show ip interface brief
Interface              IP-Address      OK? Method Status                Protocol
FastEthernet0/0        20.1.1.1        YES manual up                    up
Serial3/0                   1.1.1.2         YES manual up                    up
Loopback0              12.0.0.1        YES manual up                    up
Loopback1              12.0.1.1        YES manual up                    up
Loopback2              12.0.2.1        YES manual up                    up
Loopback3              12.0.3.1        YES manual up                    up


R1(config)#router ospf 10
R1(config-router)#router-id 11.11.11.11
R1(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0
R1(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0
R1(config-router)#network 11.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

R2(config)#router ospf 10
R2(config-router)#router-id 12.12.12.12
R2(config-router)#network 12.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R2(config-router)#network 20.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0

R2(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0


R1(config)#interface serial 3/0
R1(config-if)#ip ospf authentication
R1(config-if)#ip ospf authentication-key internet


*Dec  5 12:09:31.047: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 10, Nbr 12.12.12.12 on Serial3/0 from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Dead timer expired

R2(config)#interface serial 3/0
R2(config-if)#ip ospf authentication
R2(config-if)#ip ospf authentication-key internet

(ip ospf authentication command you can enable plaintext authentication on the
interface level.)


*Dec  5 12:16:37.095: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 10, Nbr 11.11.11.11 on Serial3/0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done

R1#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface

12.12.12.12       0   FULL/  -        00:00:39    1.1.1.2         Serial3/0

R2#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface
11.11.11.11       0   FULL/  -        00:00:39    1.1.1.1         Serial3/0

(when we have  lots of interfaces do not want to enable OSPF authentication for
each  and every interfaces. we can also enable area-wide authentication by using  area
authentication command). 


lets see:-

R1(config)#router ospf 10
R1(config-router)#area 0 authentication
R1(config-router)#end

*Dec  5 12:27:32.931: OSPF-10 EVENT: Area config: 'area 0 authentication '

R2(config)#router ospf 10
R2(config-router)#area 0 authentication

R1#show ip ospf interface serial 3/0
Serial3/0 is up, line protocol is up
  Internet Address 1.1.1.1/8, Area 0, Attached via Network Statement
  Process ID 10, Router ID 11.11.11.11, Network Type POINT_TO_POINT, Cost: 64
  Topology-MTID    Cost    Disabled    Shutdown      Topology Name
        0           64        no          no            Base
  Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT
  Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
    oob-resync timeout 40
    Hello due in 00:00:00
  Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
  Cisco NSF helper support enabled
  IETF NSF helper support enabled
  Index 1/1, flood queue length 0
  Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
  Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1
  Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
  Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1
    Adjacent with neighbor 12.12.12.12
  Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
  Simple password authentication enabled



R2#show ip ospf interface serial 3/0
Serial3/0 is up, line protocol is up
  Internet Address 1.1.1.2/8, Area 0, Attached via Network Statement
  Process ID 10, Router ID 12.12.12.12, Network Type POINT_TO_POINT, Cost: 64
  Topology-MTID    Cost    Disabled    Shutdown      Topology Name
        0           64        no          no            Base
  Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT
  Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
    oob-resync timeout 40
    Hello due in 00:00:04
  Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
  Cisco NSF helper support enabled
  IETF NSF helper support enabled
  Index 2/2, flood queue length 0
  Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
  Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1
  Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
  Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1
    Adjacent with neighbor 11.11.11.11
  Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
  Simple password authentication enabled



MD5 in OSPF:-


MD5 authentication we need different commands. First of all we use ip ospf message-digest key
name md5 to specify the key num and the password. name and key number is not matter we can choose whatever name but it must be the same on both sites. To enable OSPF authentication we need
to type  ip ospf authentication message-digest.

 Topology:

 



GOAL:
  • we are continuing our previous topology
  • erase the simple authentication configuration
R1(config)#router ospf 11
R1(config-router)#router-id 11.11.11.11
R1(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0
R1(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0
R1(config-router)#network 11.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

R2(config)#router ospf 12
R2(config-router)#router-id 12.12.12.12
R2(config-router)#network 1.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0
R2(config-router)#network 20.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0
R2(config-router)#network 12.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0




R1(config)# router ospf 11
R1(config-router)#  area 0 authentication message-digest
R1(config-router)#  exit

R1(config)#  interface serial 3/0
R1(config-if)#  ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 internet


R2(config)# router ospf 11
R2(config-router)#  area 0 authentication message-digest
R2(config-router)#  exit

R2(config)#  interface serial 3/0
R2(config-if)#  ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 internet


R1#show ip ospf interface serial 3/0
Serial3/0 is up, line protocol is up
  Internet Address 1.1.1.1/8, Area 0, Attached via Network Statement
  Process ID 11, Router ID 11.11.11.11, Network Type POINT_TO_POINT, Cost: 64
  Topology-MTID    Cost    Disabled    Shutdown      Topology Name
        0           64        no          no            Base
  Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT
  Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
    oob-resync timeout 40
    Hello due in 00:00:01
  Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
  Cisco NSF helper support enabled
  IETF NSF helper support enabled
  Index 2/2, flood queue length 0
  Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
  Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1
  Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
  Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1
    Adjacent with neighbor 12.12.12.12
  Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
  Message digest authentication enabled
    Youngest key id is 1


R2#show ip ospf interface serial 3/0
Serial3/0 is up, line protocol is up
  Internet Address 1.1.1.2/8, Area 0, Attached via Network Statement
  Process ID 11, Router ID 12.12.12.12, Network Type POINT_TO_POINT, Cost: 64
  Topology-MTID    Cost    Disabled    Shutdown      Topology Name
        0           64        no          no            Base
  Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT
  Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
    oob-resync timeout 40
    Hello due in 00:00:04
  Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
  Cisco NSF helper support enabled
  IETF NSF helper support enabled
  Index 2/2, flood queue length 0
  Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
  Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1
  Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 4 msec
  Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1
    Adjacent with neighbor 11.11.11.11
  Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
  Message digest authentication enabled
    Youngest key id is 1




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