Monday, 29 October 2018

IP Routing



 IP Routing

IP routing is basically the process of moving packets from one network to another network using routers.


Here is the list of all the default routing labs and theories
1.       






Routing protocols

Router use routing protocol to dynamically find all the networks within the great internetwork and to ensure that all router have the same routing table, routing protocols are also employed to determine the best path a packet should through an internetwork to get its destination most effectively. RIP, RIPv2, OSPF, and EIGRP are the most common routing protocols.

Routed protocols

Routed protocols can be used to send user data (packets) through the established enterprise. Routed protocols are assigned to an interface and determine the method of packet delivery. E.g. IP and IPv6.

The three type of routing method.

Ø  Static routing
Ø  Default routing
Ø  Dynamic routing

Static Routing

Static routing is the process that ensure when you manually add routes in each router’s routing table. There are the advantages and disadvantages of Static Routing.

Here the advantages:

·         There is no overhead on the router CPU.
·         There is no bandwidth usage between routers.
·         It adds security because of you, the administrator, can be very exclusive and choose to allow routing access to certain networks only.

And here are the disadvantages:

·         The administrator is must have a vault-tight knowledge of the internetwork and how each router is connected in order to configure routes correctly. If you don’t have a good, accurate map of your internetwork, things will get very messy.
·         If you add a network to the internetwork, you have to tediously add a route to it on all routers by hand.
·         It’s just not feasible to use it in most large networks because maintaining it would be a full-time job in itself.

Here’s the command syntax you use to add a static route to a routing table from global

 ip route    [destination network] [mask] [next-hop address or exit interface­] [administrative distance] [permanent]

ip routethe command used to change the static route.

Destination network- the network you’re placing in the routing table

Mask-   the subnet mask being used on the network

Next-hop address- this is ip address o the next-hop router that will receive packets and forward them to the remote network.

Exit interface- used in place o the next-hop address if you want, and show up as a directly connected route.

Administrative- distance by default, static routes have an administrative distance o 1 or 0. Next-hop AD is 1, and exit interface AD is 0.

Permanent if the interface is shut down or the router can’t communicate to the next-hop router, the route will automatically discarded from the  routing table by default. Choosing the permanent option keeps the entry in the routing table no matter what happens.



Static routing config:



 Topology
                                            


    
GOAL:
·         Design topology and assign IP addresses as per the diagram.
·         Configure static routing on Router Luke, mark, and john. And ensure that all the LAN interfaces can ping to each other.

LUKE#show ip interface brief


Interface              IP-Address         OK? Method Status                Protocol
Serial3/0              10.1.1.1              YES manual up                           up
Loopback0          192.168.100.50  YES manual up                           up



 MARK#show ip interface brief


Interface              IP-Address           OK? Method Status                Protocol
Serial3/0              10.1.1.2                YES manual up                           up
Serial3/1              11.1.1.2                 YES manual up                           up
Loopback0          192.168.150.75     YES manual up                           up



JOHN#show ip interface brief
Interface              IP-Address            OK? Method Status                Protocol
Serial3/1              11.1.1.1                  YES manual up                         up
Loopback0           192.168.200.100    YES manual up                        up
LUKE(config)#ip route 192.168.150.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.2
LUKE(config)#ip route 192.168.200.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.2
LUKE(config)#ip route 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0  10.1.1.2

MARK(config)#ip route 192.168.100.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.1
MARK(config)#ip route 192.168.200.0 255.255.255.0 11.1.1.1

JOHN(config)#ip route 192.168.100.0 255.255.255.0 11.1.1.2
JOHN(config)#ip route 192.168.150.0 255.255.255.0 11.1.1.2
JOHN(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 11.1.1.2


LUKE#show ip route static
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is not set

S     11.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 10.1.1.2
S     192.168.150.0/24 [1/0] via 10.1.1.2
S     192.168.200.0/24 [1/0] via 10.1.1.2




MARK#show ip route static
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is not set

S     192.168.100.0/24 [1/0] via 10.1.1.1
S     192.168.200.0/24 [1/0] via 11.1.1.1


JOHN#show ip route static
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is not set

S     10.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 11.1.1.2
S     192.168.100.0/24 [1/0] via 11.1.1.2
S     192.168.150.0/24 [1/0] via 11.1.1.2


LUKE#ping 192.168.200.100
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.200.100, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 44/48/64 ms

LUKE#ping 192.168.150.75
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.150.75, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 20/24/28 ms

LUKE#ping 11.1.1.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 11.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 20/25/36 ms


MARK#ping 192.168.100.50
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.100.50, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/14/24 ms

MARK#ping 192.168.200.100
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.200.100, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 8/12/28 ms


JOHN#ping 192.168.100.50
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.100.50, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 24/32/40 ms

JOHN#ping 192.168.150.75
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.150.75, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 20/20/20 ms

JOHN#ping 10.1.1.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 40/45/60 ms


Default Routing

Default route is used by IP to forward any packet with a destination not found in the routing table, which is why it is also called a gateway of last resort. Also can be used at end location where is only one exit path for any destination (internet).
Default routes help in reducing the size of your routing table. It’s a last preferred route in the routing table.



Dynamic routing

Dynamic routing is used to find networks and update routing tables on routers dynamically. Its easier than using static or default routing, but it will cost you in term o router CPU processing and bandwidth on network link.

Advantages of dynamic over static:

·         There is no need to know the destination networks.
·         Need to advertise the directly connected networks.
·         Update the topology change dynamically
·         Administrative work is reduce.
·         Used for large organization.
·         This is easier than using static or default routing.

 Administrative distance

The administrative distance (AD) is used to rate the trustworthiness of routing information received on a router from a neighbor routers. An administrative distance is an integer from 0 to 255, where 0 is the most trusted and 255 means no traffic will be passed via this route.

Default administrative distance
Connected interface   = 0
Static route                 =1
EIGRP                        =90
OSPF                          =110
RIP                              =120
External EIGRP          =170
Unknown                     = 255 (this route will never used).

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